Petroleum

BCM Global Trader

Petroleum


Petroleum
We are a highly specialized Physical Commodity Trader of both Crude Oil, its by-products and Global Financial Instruments.

We hold the titles and/or allocations for these commodities and our supplier and clients are direct, established, well-known and trusted companies in the industry. We do NOT deal with broker and intermediary chains. Physical raw commodities successfully traded include Aviation Kerosene Colonial Pipeline Grade 54 Jet Fuel JPA & A-1, Diesel Fuel D2 Russian & Venezuelan Gas Oil, Mazut M100, Russian Export Blended Crude Oil, LPG, Saudi & Bonny Light Crude Oil and Kazakhstan Blended Crude Oil

Our accumulation of knowledge in trading commodities combined with our extensive background in the global financial sector and the procurement of excellent relationships with our direct suppliers and buyers, brings very valuable market experience to benefit all transactions in ensuring their successful conclusion.

BCMGLOBAL TRADER is a master limited partnership engaged in the wholesale and commercial distribution of refined petroleum products, and provides ancillary services to companies domestically and internationally. The Company’s business is divided into two segments: Wholesale and Commercial. The Wholesale segment includes sales of gasoline, distillates and residual oil to resellers of transportation fuels, home heating oil retailers and wholesale distributors. The Commercial segment includes sales of unbranded gasoline, home heating oil, diesel, kerosene and residual oil to customers in the public sector and to large commercial and industrial customers, primarily either through a competitive bidding process or through contracts of various terms. This segment also purchases, custom blends, sells and delivers bunker fuel and diesel to cruise ships, bulk carriers and fishing fleets generally by barges. Partnership has three wholly owned operating subsidiaries, The Company’s operations and activities are managed by its general partner, BCM.

The Partnership sells Crude Oil, D2 Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Mazut and Rebco. The Company sells grades of unbranded gasoline. It sells conventional gasoline and ethanol blended gasoline in the markets that require such products. The Company specially blends residual oil for users in accordance with their individual power plant specifications.

Crude oil and oil products such as fuel oil, gasoline, diesel D2 fuel, jet fuel, rebco, liquified petroleum gas and mazut are physically marketed through BCM's commodity sales departments.

To support the activities of these departments, BCM companies holds ownership interests, both directly and indirectly, in several strategically located oil refining operations as well as a diversified portfolio of oil producing assets.

BCM companies' supplies are acquired in part through product produced from its oil pits, long-term contracts from key-producing countries, as well as by traditional short and medium-term purchase agreements. BCM and its subsidiaries deliver to a variety of customers, including the major and medium sized oil companies, Government purchasing agencies and industrial end-users.

Oil and Gas activities are handled primarily by BCM offices in Montreal,quebec .

Click Here to Download the Conversions Table


JET FUEL

What is Jet Fuel? Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is clear to straw colored. The most common fuels are Jet A and Jet A-1 which are produced to an internationally standardized set of specifications. The only other Jet fuel that is commonly used in civilian turbine engine-powered aviation is called Jet B and is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.

SPECIFICATIONS JET FUEL COLONIAL GRADE 54

Density at 15˜ 0.8 / 0.83 g/ml
DIST_D86 / I.B.P. 159.8
DIST_D86 / 10% recovered 187.4
DIST_D86 / 20% recovered 194.8
DIST_D86 / 50% recovered 208.8
DIST_D86 / 90% recovered 232.7
DIST_D86 / F.B.P. 244.1
DIST_D86 / Residue 1.2 % vol
DIST_D86 / Loss 1.4 % vol
Saybolt Color 28
Appearance Clear & Bright
Flash Point 51.5
Copper Strip Corrosion 2h@100 Class 1
Acid number 0.004 mg KOH
Total Sulphur 0.12 % w/w
Mercaptan Sulphur 0.0005 % w/w
Existent Gum 1mg / 100 mI
FIA / Aromatics 16.5 % vol
Water Reaction : Interface Rating 1
Net Heat of Specific Energy 43.222 ml/kg
Freezing Point -43.5 °C
Kinematics Viscosity @ - 20 6.86 cSt
Smoke point 25 mm
Naphthalene’s 1.2 % vol
JFTOT / Change in pressure drop 1 mm HG
JFTOT / Filter Tube Deposit 1
JFTOT / Tube Appearance 1
MSEP - A 97
Hydrogen Content 13.96 % w/w
Hydro processed fuel in botch 300 % w/w


LNG

What is LNG? Lique fied natural gas or LNG islique fied gas that has been converted temporarily to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. LNG offers an energy density comparable to petrol and diesel fuels and produces less pollution.

SPECIFICATION LNG

Gross Heating Value (Volume Based)
Minimum: 1050 Btu/SCF
Maximum: 1170 Btu/SCF
Hydrocarbon Composition and Nitrogen Content Within the following range:
Methane: 85.00 MOL% Minimum
Butanes and Heavier: 2.0 MOL% Maximum
Pentanes and Heavier: 0.10 MOL% Maximum
Nitrogen: 1.00 MOL% Maximum
Impurities with the following Range:
Hydrogen Sulphide: 4.8 MG/Nm3 Maximum
Total Sulphur: 28.0 MG/Nm3 Maximum SPECIFICATION LNG
Gross Heating Value (Volume Based)
Minimum: 1050 Btu/SCF
Maximum: 1170 Btu/SCF
Hydrocarbon Composition and Nitrogen Content Within the following range:
Methane: 85.00 MOL% Minimum
Butanes and Heavier: 2.0 MOL% Maximum
Pentanes and Heavier: 0.10 MOL% Maximumv
Nitrogen: 1.00 MOL% Maximum
Impurities with the following Range:
Hydrogen Sulphide: 4.8 MG/Nm3 Maximum
Total Sulphur: 28.0 MG/Nm3 Maximum

SPECIFICATION LPG*

Component weight % Propane Iso-butane Normal butane
Methane (C1) NIL - NIL
Ethane (C2) 0.6% max NIL NIL
Propane (C3) 98.9% min 1.2% max NIL
Iso butane (iC4) 0.5% max 95.8% (min) 2% max
Normal butane (nC4) NIL 3% max 96% min
Pentanes (C5) - NIL 1.9% max
Unsaturated hydrocarbons - NIL -
Carbon dioxide (CO2) NIL - NIL
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) 1ppm max - NIL
Free water -48 Dew pt - -44C Dew pt
*Target: No guaranteed specifications


Mazut

What is Mazut? Mazut is a heavy, low quality fuel oil, used in generating plants and similar applications. When blended the end product is Diesel. Heavy crude oils provide an interesting situation for the economics of petroleum development.

SPECIFICATION

Ash content, not more % 0,14
Mass fraction of sulphur, not more % 0,5
Temperature of the flash, not less °C 110 min
The temperature of solidification, not higher °C 25
Kinematics viscosity 118 max
Water content 0.5%
Mechanical impurities Lower than 0.1%
Acidity Lower than 5 mg KOH/ 100ml
Alkalinity nil
Gross Calorific Value Kcal/kg / KJ/kg min 9200/41300
Density at 15.0 deg. °C Kg/l 0.8900-0.9200
Hydrogen Sulfide Content (H2S) pom 0.5 max
Carbon Residual Lower than 7%
Vanadium (V) ppm 23
Aluminium (Al) ppm 5
Silikon (Si) ppm 12
Nickel (Ni) ppm 49
Asphaltenes m/m 3.6%
Destilation @4 mm Hg
Extracted to 760 mm Hg Initial Boiling Point deg. °C 216
5% recovered deg. °C 259
10% recovered deg. °C 310


Fuel Oil

What is Fuel Oil? Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a ash point of approximately 40 °C and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners.

SPECIFICATIONS SLCO Saudi Light Crude Oil

API Gravity 33.34
Sediment Content 0.1
ASTM Stabilized Gravity 34.5
Wax Wt. Percentage 9
Vanadium ppm V200 11.0
Gross Heating Value 19.23
Reid Vapor Pressure 2.0
Salt Content ppm NaCI 8
Sulphur Wt, Percentage ` 1.8 Max
Ash ppm 100.0
Comp Carbon Residue Wt. Percentage 3.1
Viscosity CP 55.0
Pour Point 35.0


Diesel (Gas oil)

What is Fuel Oil? Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. Broadly speaking, fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a ash point of approximately 40 °C and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners.

SPECIFICATIONS

Centane number, min 45
Distillation, degrees C:
50% max 280
96% (final boiling point) max 360
Kinematic viscosity at 20C, square mm/c, (cst) 3.0-6.0
Sulphur mass, %, max 0.2
Mercaptan sulphur, %, max 0.01
Hydrogen sulphid Abs.
Copper strip test Passes
Water soluble acids and alkalais Abs.
Actual gum content, mg/100 cubic cm, max 40
Acidity, mg/100 cubic cm of gasoil, max 5
Iodine number, g/100 g, max 6
Ash, %, max 0.01
Cokability of 10% residue, max % 0.20
Filtration coefficient, max 3
Sediments Abs.
Water Abs.
Density at 20C, kg/cubic m, max 860
Flash point (closed cup), degrees C, min 62
Pour point from March to October (Summer), degrees C, max -5
Pour point from November to February (Winter), degrees C, max -10
Cloud point from March to October (Summer), degrees C, max 0
Cloud point from November to February (Winter), degrees C, max -5


Commodities Transaction Procedure

  1. Buyer completes ICPO with banking details- specification and signed with letterhead of the corporation signed and sealed
  2. NDNCA/IMFPA – Warning Letter signed and sealed.
  3. Seller sends Draft Contract and Attestation Letter to Buyer. Buyer signs, seals and returns Contract. Verification of ownership tittle and verification of funds will be operated with only top prime bank of both parties.
  4. After acceptance of the funds and ownership tittle Buyer will have to send a copy of the pre-advised LC or MT-103-23
  5. Seller’s bank accepts the pre-advised banking payment instrument from buyer and buyer issue Letter of credit or MT-103-23 against shipping document from Seller
  6. Seller issues FULL POP, shipping document and Final Contract.
  7. Buyer verifies POP.
  8. Buyer has to do MT760 and RDLC
  9. Lifting commences as per Contract


When commercial traders enter into a contract for the purchase and sale of goods, they are free to negotiate specific terms of their contract. These terms include the price, quantity, and characteristics of the goods. Every international contract will also contain what is referred to as an Incoterm (international commercial term). The Incoterm selected by the parties to the transaction will determine which party pays the cost of each segment of transport, who is responsible for loading & unloading of goods, and who bears the risk of loss at any given point during a given international shipment. Incoterms also influence Customs valuation basis of imported merchandise. Incoterms are overseen and administered by the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris and are adhered to by the major trading nations of the world. There are currently 13 Incoterms in use, and they can be considered on the basis cited above.

All the current Incoterms are described below :

  • ExWorks (EXW)
  • Free Carrier (FCA)
  • Free Alongside Ship (FAS)
  • Free On Board (FOB)
  • Cost & Freight (CFR)
  • Cost, Insurance & Freight (CIF)
  • Carriage Paid To (CPT)
  • Carriage & Insurance Paid To (CIP)
  • Delivered At Frontier (DAF)
  • Delivered Ex-Ship (DES)
  • Delivered Ex-Quay (DEQ)
  • Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU)
  • Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)

ExWorks (EXW)
The seller (exporter) makes the goods available to the buyer (importer) at the seller's premises. The buyer is responsible for all transportation costs, duties, and insurance, and accepts risk of loss of goods immediately after the goods are purchased and placed outside the factory door. The ExWorks price does not include the price of loading goods onto a truck or vessel, and no allowance is made for clearing customs. If FOB is the Customs valuation basis of the goods in the country of destination, the transportation and insurance costs from the seller's premises to the port of export must be added to the ExWorks price.

Free Carrier (FCA)
The seller (exporter) clears the goods for export and delivers them to the carrier and place specified by the buyer. If the place chosen is the seller's place of business, the seller must load the goods onto the transport vehicle; otherwise, the buyer is responsible for loading the goods. Buyer assumes ownership/risk of loss from that point forward and must pay for all costs associated with transporting the goods to the final destination.

Free Alongside Ship (FAS)
The seller transports the goods from his place of business, clears the goods for export and places them alongside the vessel at the port of export, where the transfer of ownership and risk of loss shift to the buyer The buyer is responsible for loading the goods onto the vessel (unless specified otherwise) and for paying all costs involved in shipping the goods to the final destination.

Free On Board (FOB)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for delivering the goods from his place of business and loading them onto the vessel of at the port of export as well as clearing customs in the country of export. As soon as the goods cross the «ships-rails» (the ship's threshold) the risk of loss/ownership transfers to the buyer (importer). The buyer must pay for all transportation and insurance costs from that point, and must clear customs in the country of import. An FOB transaction will read «FOB, port of export». For example, assuming the port of export is Boston, an FOB transaction would read «FOB New York». If CIF is the Customs valuation basis, international freight and insurance must be added to the FOB value.

Cost & Freight (CFR)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for clearing the goods for export, delivering the goods past the ships rail at the port of shipment and paying international freight charges. The buyer assumes ownership/bears risk of loss once the goods cross the ship's rail, and must purchase insurance, unload the goods, clear customs, and pay for transport to deliver the goods to their final destination. If FOB is the Customs valuation basis, the international freight costs must be deducted from the CFR price.

Cost, Insurance & Freight (CIF)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for delivering the goods onto the vessel of transport and clearing Customs in the country of export. He is also responsible for purchasing insurance, with the buyer (importer) named as the beneficiary. Transfer of ownership takes place as the goods cross the ship's rail. This if goods are damaged or stolen during international transport, the buyer owns the goods and must file a claim based on insurance procured by the seller. The buyer must clear customs in the country of import and pay for all other transport and insurance in the country of import. CIF can be used as an Incoterm only when the international transport of goods is at least partially by water. If FOB is the Customs valuation basis, the international insurance and freight costs must be deducted from the CIF price. A CIF transaction will read CIF, port of destination. For example, assuming that goods are exported to the port of Novorossiysk, a CIF transaction would read «CIF Novorossiysk».

Carriage Paid To (CPT)
The seller (exporter) clears the goods for export, delivers them to the carrier and is responsible for carriage costs to the named place of destination. Transfer of ownership occurs once the goods are transferred to the carrier and the buyer must insure the goods from that time on. If FOB is the Customs valuation basis, the international freight cost must be deducted from the CPT price.

Carriage & Insurance Paid To (CIP)
The seller transports the goods to the port of export, clears Customs, and delivers them to the carrier. From that point transfer of ownership shifts to the buyer. Seller is responsible for carriage and insurance costs to the named place of destination. The buyer is responsible for all costs, and bears risk of loss from that point forward. If FOB is the Customs valuation basis, international freight and insurance costs need to be deducted from the CIP price.

Delivered At Frontier (DAF)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for all costs involved in delivering the goods to the named point and place at the frontier. Transfer of ownership takes place at the frontier. The buyer must pay the costs and bear the risk of unloading the goods, clearing Customs, and transporting the goods to the final destination. If FOB is the Customs valuation basis, the international insurance and freight costs must be deducted from the DAF price.

Delivered Ex-Ship (DES)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for all costs involved in delivering the goods to a named port of destination. Upon arrival, the goods are made available to the buyer (importer) on-board the vessel. Therefore, the seller is responsible for all costs/risk of loss prior to unloading at the port of destination. The buyer (importer) must have the goods unloaded, pay duties, clear Customs and provide inland transportation & insurance to the final destination.

Delivered Ex-Quay (DEQ)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for all costs involved in transporting the goods to the wharf (quay) at the port of destination. The buyer must pay duties, clear Customs, and pay the cost/bear the risk of loss from that point forward. If FOB is the Customs valuation basis, the international insurance and freight costs, in addition to unloading costs, must be deducted from the DEQ price.

Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for all costs involved in delivering the goods to a named place of destination where the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer. The buyer (importer) assumes ownership/risk of loss at that point and must clear Customs and pay duties and provide inland transportation and insurance to the final destination.

Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)
The seller (exporter) is responsible for all costs involved in delivering the goods to a named place of destination and for clearing Customs in the country of import. Under a DDP Incoterm, the seller provides literally door-to-door delivery, including Customs clearance in the port of export and the port of destination. Transfer of ownership occurs when the goods are delivered to the buyer, usually at his premises. Thus the seller bears the entire risk of loss until goods are delivered to the buyer's premises. A DDP transaction will read «DDP named place of destination». For example, assuming goods imported through St. Petersburg are delivered to Moscow, the Incoterm would read «DDP, Moscow». If CIF is the Customs valuation basis, the costs of unloading the vessel, clearing Customs, and delivery to the buyer's premises in the country of destination including inland insurance, must be deducted to arrive at the CIF value.

Oil Industry Conversion Charts & Calculator:

Crude petroleum, and the refined products made from crude oil, are normally measured either by volume in gallons and US barrels, or by weight in tons or tonnes. The relationship between volume and weight is usually measured by density in the United Kingdom (the alternative measure is relative density or specific gravity). American oilmen usually reckon quantities of oil produced, moved or processed in barrels per day (bpd or b/d). The loose but simple rule of thumb for conversion is that a barrel a day is roughly 50 tonnes a year, but the relationship varies according to density and so according to product.


        ---------------------------------------------------------------
                                       At 86°F (30°C)
                           ----------- Approximation ------------------
                           Liters      Liters     A.Gallons  A.Barrels
        Product            per         per         per         per
                           Europe.Ton  M.Ton       M.Ton       M.Ton
        ---------------------------------------------------------------
        L.P.G              1,864       1,835       484.6       11.54
        JP.4               1,355       1,333       352.4        8.39
        Jet A-1            1,274       1,254       331.2        7.89
        Premium            1,375       1,353       357.5        8.51
        Regular            1,440       1,418       374.5        8.92
        Kerosene           1,293       1,273       336.2        8.00
        Gas Oil            1,197       1,177       311.2        7.41
        Diesel Fuel        1,177       1,159       306.1        7.29
        Fuel oil  80 CST   1,082       1,065       281.2        6.70
        Fuel oil 180 CST   1,067       1,050       277.4        6.60
        Fuel oil 230 CST   1,064       1,047       276.6        6.59
        Fuel oil 280 CST   1,061       1,044       275.9        6.57
        Bitumen              994         979       258.5        6.15
        --------------------------------------------------------------
 
1 MMSCF of natural gas          = 172.3 barrels of crude oil equivalent
                                = 365 x 1,000,000 scf
1 million cu.ft. of natural gas = 18.91 tons liquid
                                = 1598.69 cu.ft.liquid
1 std.cu.feet of natural gas    = 1000 BTU = 252 kilocalories
1 m.ton of coal                 = 4.879 barrels of crude oil equivalent
1 m.ton of lignite              = 2.053 barrels of crude oil equivalent
1 ltr of fuel oil 1500 sec      = 38.9 cubic feet of natural gas
1 kg of LPG                     = 47.0 cubic feet of natural gas
1 normal cu.m. per day (Nm3/d)  = 37.33 standard cu.ft. per day (SCFD)
  [flow rate of gas]
1 ton of LNG                    = 1.14 1.4 x 103 normal cu.m.natural
  (LNG conversions)               gas (Nm3)
                                = 52.3 x 103 standard cubic feet natural
                                  gas (SCF)
                                = 55.0 x 109 joules (HHV)
 
1 ton of LNG                    = 1.22 tone crude oil
  (Energy equivalents)          = 0.80 tone heavy fuel oil
                                = 0.91 tone LPG (commercial composition)
                                = 1.91 tone coal
1 barrel per day (b/d)          = 50 tones per year (approx.)
1 barrel of oil equivalent      = 1 barrel of crude oil
                                = 5,487 cubic feet of gas 
 
* Natural gas is converted to barrels of oil equivalent using a ratio of 5,487 cubic feet of natural gas per one barrel of crude oil. This ratio is based on the actual average equivalent energy content of Total's natural gas reserves.
 
1 barrel of crude oil per day   = appr. 50 tons of crude oil per year
1 ton of crude oil              = 1 metric ton of crude oil
                                = appr. 7.3 barrels of crude oil (assuming
                                  a specific gravity of 33 API)
                                = 6.6-8.0 bbl. of crude oil with 7.333 bbl.
                                  Taken as average
                                = 1.16 kl. of crude oil (average)
1 ton of oil equivalent         = appr,1,125 cubic meters of natural gas
 
 
MMSCF   Million standard cubic feet
CST     Centi-Stroke
A.      American
E.      English
 
VOLUME 1 American barrel        = 158.984 liters
                                = 42 American (US) gallons
                                = 34.9726 Imperial (UK) gallons
                                = 5.6146 cubic feet
                                = 0.15899 cubic meter
                                = 3.78541 cubic decimeters (dm3)
                                = 0.136 tone (approx)
        1 American gallon       = 231 cubic inches
                                = 0.133681 cubic foot
                                = 3.7854 liters
                                = 0.0238095 American barrel
                                = 0.83268 Imperial gallon
                                = 0.0037854 cubic meter
        1 Imperial gallon       = 277.42 cubic inches
                                = 1.20094 American gallons
                                = 4.54609 liters
                                = 0.028594 American barrel
                                = 0.160544 cubic foot
                                = 0.004561 cubic meter
        1 liter                 = 1,000 cubic centimeters
                                = 1 cubic decimeter (dm3)
                                = 0.035314 cubic foot
                                = 61.024 cubic inches
                                = 1.7597 pints
                                = 0.219969 Imperial gallon
                                = 0.26417 American gallon
        1 kiloliter             = 1,000 cubic decimeters (dm3)
                                = 6.28981 American barrels
        1 gross ton             = 100 cubic feet or 2.83 cubic meters of
          (Shipping)              permanently enclosed space
        1 cubic meter           = 35.315 cubic feet
                                = 219.97 Imperial gallons
                                = 1,000 liters
                                = 6.2898 American barrels
                                = 264.17 American gallons
WEIGHT 1 oz.                    = 28.35 grams
        1 lb.                   = 0.453592 kilograms
                                = 0.009 cwt.
        1 kg.                   = 2.20462 lb.
                                = 0.01 quintal
        1 cwt                   = 112 lb.
                                = 50.802 kg.
        1 metric ton            = 0.98421 long ton or English ton
                                = 1.10231 short ton
                                = 2,204.6 lb
        1 English ton           = 1.01605 metric tons
          or long ton           = 1.12 short tons
        1 short ton             = 0.907186 metric ton
                                = 0.892857 long ton
                                = 2,000 lb.
 
         These conversions are based on the assumption that all weights
          Are weights in air, which is the correct basis for computing?
          Bulk commercial quantities of petroleum
 
PRICE   1 US cent/AG            = 0.42 US$/BBL
        1 US$/BBL               = 0.163 Baht/Liters
                                  (Based on exchange rate of 25.9 Baht/US$)
 
PETROLEUM SPECIFIC GRAVITY VOLUME PER TON
       ----------------------------------------------
        Degree     Specific    Barrels *   Long tone
        API        gravity     per metric
                               Tone
       ----------------------------------------------
        25         0.904       6.98        7.09
        26         0.898       7.02        7.13
        27         0.893       7.06        7.18
        28         0.887       7.10        7.22
        29         0.882       7.15        7.27
        30         0.876       7.19        7.31
        31         0.871       7.24        7.36
        32         0.865       7.28        7.40
        33         0.860       7.33        7.45
        34         0.855       7.37        7.49
        35         0.850       7.42        7.54
        36         0.845       7.46        7.58
        37         0.840       7.51        7.63
        38         0.835       7.55        7.67
        39         0.830       7.60        7.72
        40         0.825       7.64        7.76
        41         0.820       7.69        7.81
        42         0.816       7.73        7.85
       ----------------------------------------------
                                * Approx. figures 60°F
                                      141.5
                Specific gravity = ------------
                                   131.5 + °API
 
 
 
       POWER AND HEAT UNITS
        1 HP (UK Horsepower)    = 550 foot pounds per second
                                = 0.7457 kilowatt
                                = 1.014 PS (or Cheval Vapeur)
        1 PS (Pferdestaerke)    = 542 foot pounds per second
          or CV (Cheval Vapeur) = 0.986 hp
                                = 0.736 kW
        1 kW (Kilowatt)         = 1,000 watts
                                = 1,340 hp
                                = 1.359 PS or CV
                                = 737 foot pounds per second
        1 foot pound per second = 0.00136 kilowatt
                                = 0.00182 hp
                                = 0.00184 PS or CV
        1000 Btu                = 0.293 kWh
        100,000 Btu             = 1 therm
        1 calorie (dieticians') = 4.1855 kilojoules
        1 Therm                 = 100,000 Btu (British Thermal Units)
                                = 25,200 kilocalories
                                = 25.2 thermies
                                = 29.3 kilowatt hours
        1000 kilocalories       = 3,968 Btu
             (Large Calories)   = 1.163 kilowatt hours
                                = 1 thermie
        1 kilowatt hour         = 3,411 Btu
                                = 1.340 hp hours
                                = 859.6 kilocalories
 
       LIQUEFIED METHANE
       
        1 Ton of Liquefied      = approximately 16 barrels
          Methane               = approximately 50,000 cubic feet
                                  (1400 cubic meters) of natural gas,
                                  Depending on methane content
 
        
  PRODUCT SPECIFIC GRAVITY RANGES
        ---------------------------------------------------
                                Spec.         Barrels per
                                Gravity       metric ton
        ---------------------------------------------------
        Crude oils              0.80-0.97       8.0-6.6
        Aviation gasoline's     0.70-0.78       9.1-8.2
        Motor gasoline's        0.71-0.79       9.0-8.1
        Kerosines               0.78-0.84       8.2-7.6
        Gas oils                0.82-0.90       7.8-7.1
        Diesel oils             0.82-0.92       7.8-6.9
        Lubricating oils        0.85-0.95       7.5-6.7
        Fuel oils               0.92-0.99       6.9-6.5
        Asphaltic bitumen's     1.00-1.10       6.4-5.8
        ---------------------------------------------------
 
  CALORIFIC VALUE OF FUElS
           Rough gross values in Btu per lb
        -------------------------------------
        Crude oils              18,300-19,500
        Gasoline's                     20,500
        Kerosene's                     19,800
        Benzole                        18,100
        Ethyl alcohol                  11,600
        Gas oils                       19,200
        Fuel oils (bunker)             18,300
        Coal (bituminous)       10,200-14,600
        LNG                            22,300
        LPG (butane)                   21,300
        -------------------------------------
 
   TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF EXPORT STREAMS
        ----------------------------------------
                        MIRI   Bintulu  Labuan
        ----------------------------------------
        API Gravity      33°     35°      32°
        Pour Point      45°F    15°F     45°F
        Wt. % Sulphur   0.07    0.1      0.07
        ----------------------------------------
 
   PRESSURE>
        1 Bar                   = 0.987 atmospheres
                                = 750.1 mm Hg
                                = 14.50 pound/sq inch
                                = 1.020 kg force/sq cm
        1 kg force/sq cm        = 14.22 pounds/sq inch
        1 pound/sq inch         = 0.070 kg force/sq inch
 
    HEAT AND ENERGY
        1 megajoule             = 238.8 kilocalories
                                = 947.8 British Thermal Units
                                = 0.278 kilowatt hours
        1 terajoule             = 0.00002388 Mtoe
        1 kilocalorie           = 3.968 Btu
                                = 4186 joules
                                = 1.163 x 10-3 kWh
        1 kilowatt hour         = 859.8 kilocalories
                                = 3412 Btu
        1 million Btu           = 1055 megajoule
                                = 2520 megacalories
                                = 293.1 kilowatt hours
        1 ton of oil equivalent = 10000000 kilocalories
          (Ton)                 = 41.868 gigajoules
                                = 40.047 x 106 BTU
                                = 42.244 GJ
 
 INTER FUEL CONVERSION FACTOR
        Whilst individual crude's, coals and gases vary widely in quality,
        Certain standard qualities are often assumed for statistical
        Purposes:
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Reference     Barrel Oil   Ton Oil     Ton Coal     1,000 Cubic
        Fuel          Equivalent   Equivalent  Equivalent   Feet Natural
                                                            Gas
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Calorific     5.8x106      43x106      7x106        1x106
        Value         Btu gross    Btu gross   Kcal net     Btu gross
 
        Conversion    1            0.14        0.21         5.8
         Factors      7.41         1           1.57         43.0
                      4.71         0.64        1            27.3
                      0.17         0.02        0.04         1
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        Based on these qualities, the following equivalent rates of
        consumption can be used with reasonable accuracy:
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        LNG           NG           OIL         OIL          COAL
        t/y           106 mmcF/d  toe/y       boe/y        tce/y
                      109 Nm3/y
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
        1             1.41         1.22        25           1.9
        0.71          1            0.87        18           39
        0.82          1.15         1           20           1.55
        0.04          0.056        0.049       1            0.076
        0.53          0.74         0.64        13           1
        -----------------------------------------------------------------
 
 CALORIFIC VALUE
        1 megajoule/cu m        = 25.84 Btu/cu ft
        1 megajoule per normal  = 25.368 BTU per standard cubic feet
          Cubic meter             (BTU/SCF)
                                = 2.388 x 102 kilocalorie per normal
                                  cubic meter (kcal/Nm3)
        1 kilocalorie/cu m      = 0.016 Btu/cu ft
        1 megajoule/kg          = 429.9 Btu/pound
        1 kilocalorie           = 1.8 Btu/pound (exact)
        1 Btu/cu ft             = 37.38 kilojoules/cu m
                                = 9.410 kilocalories/cu m
        1 Btu/pound             = 2.326 kilojoules/kg
                                = 0.556 kilocalories/kg
 
 ENERGY VALUES
        Btu per lb:
        Wood: green              4,400
              Dry                7,310
        Peat, sod                6,200
        Lignite                  9,000
        Coke                    12,100
        Coal: bituminous        13,000
              Anthracite        14,500
        Oil:  fuel              18,500
              Gas               19,500
 
==============================================================================
NATURAL GAS AND OTHER ENERGY EQUIVALENTS
 
The following are quick-reference equivalents. All figures are APROXIMATE
VALUES only for use where precision is not required. They are based on:
 
(i)     for natural gas:
        1,000 Btu/ft3 = 9,500 kcal/m3 (Groningen gas 8,400 kcal/m3)
(ii)    for LPG:
        an assumed 50/50 propane/butane mixture with (r) or (p) indicating
        That the LPG is either refrigerated or pressurized.
(iii)   Calorific values, MMBtu (gross):
        per tone       - LNG 51.8; LPG 47.3; oil 42.3; coal 27.3
        per barrel      - LNG 3.8; LPG (r) 4.45; LPG (p) 4.1; oil 5.8
        per cubic meter - LNG 23.8; LPG (r) 28; LPG (p) 25.8
 
Natural Gas: Cubic Meter Equivalents
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 mrd m3 Natural Gas per Year
        per year = 0.04 Tcf gas (38 trillion Btu)
                 = 890 000 tones oil
                 = 800 000 tones LPG
                 = 725 000 tones LNG
                 = 1.4 million tones coal
        per day  = 100 million ft3 gas
                 = 17 800 barrels oil
                 = 23 200 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 25 200 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 27 200 barrels LNG
1 million m3 Natural Gas per Day
        per year = 0.014 Tcf gas (14 trillion Btu)
                 = 325 000 tones oil
                 = 290 000 tones LPG
                 = 265 000 tones LNG
                 = 500 000 tones coal
        per day  = 37 million ft3 gas
                 = 6 500 barrels oil
                 = 8 500 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 9 200 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 9 900 barrels LNG
        1 m3 Groningen gas = 0.88 m3 (9 500 kcal)
        1 m3 (9 500 kcal) = 1.13 m3 Groningen gas
 
Natural Gas: Cubic Foot Equivalents
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 Tcf Natural Gas per Year
        per year = 27 mrd m3 gas (30 mrd Groningen)
                 = 24 million tones oil
                 = 37 million tones coal
        per day  = 2 700 million ft3 gas
                 = 470 000 barrels oil
100 MMcf Natural Gas per Day
        per year = 0.04 Tcf (37 trillion Btu)
                 = 1 mrd m3 gas (1.1 mrd Groningen)
                 = 860 000 tones oil
                 = 770 000 tones LPG
                 = 700 000 tones LNG
                 = 1.35 million tones coal
        per day  = 2.7 million m3 gas (3 million Groningen)
                 = 17 250 barrels oil
                 = 22 500 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 24 400 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 26 300 barrels LNG
 
LNG: Volumetric Equivalents
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 million tonnes LNG per Year
        per year = 77 million ft3 (liquid)
                 = 2.2 million m3 (liquid)
                 = 14 million barrels (liquid)
                 = 0.05 Tcf (gas)
                 = 1.4 mrd m3 (gas)
                 = 1.1 million tones LPG
                 = 1.2 million tones oil
                 = 52 trillion Btu
                 = 1.9 million tones coal
        per day  = 140 million ft3 (gas)
                 = 4 million m3 (gas)
                 = 37 500 barrels LNG
                 = 31 900 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 34 600 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 24 500 barrels oil
1 million m3 LNG per Year
        per year = 460 000 tones LNG
                 = 6.3 million barrels LNG
                 = 0.2 Tcf (gas)
                 = 0.6 mrd m3 (gas)
                 = 500 000 tones oil
                 = 560 000 tones oil
                 = 24 trillion Btu
                 = 870 000 tones coal
        per day  = 65 million ft3 gas
                 = 14 700 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 15 900 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 17 200 barrels LNG
                 = 11 200 barrels oil
        m3 = kilolitre
 
LPG & Ethane: Weight, Volume, Heat Conversions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Barrels Per Tone
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            17.6         12.4         10.8         11.6
Refrigerated         11.5         10.8         10.4         10.6
 
Cubic Meters Per Tone
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            2.80         1.97         1.71         1.84
Refrigerated         1.83         1.72         1.66         1.69
 
106 Btu Per Barrel
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            2.79         3.85         4.35         4.10
Refrigerated         4.27         4.41         4.49         4.45
 
106 Btu Per Cubic Meter
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            17.6         24.2         27.4         25.8
Refrigerated         26.9         27.7         28.3         28.0
 
106 Btu Per Tone
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured     }      49.2         47.7         46.9         47.3
Refrigerated}
 
1 Barrel/Day = Tones Per Annum
                    Ethane      Propane      n-Butane     C3/C4 mix
Pressured            20.7         29.4         33.8         31.6
Refrigerated         31.7         33.8         35.0         34.4
 
Natural Gas: Inter-Fuel Price Equivalents (US Currency)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ONE CENT per MMBtu
        = 5.8 Cents per Barrel crude oil
        = 6.4 Cents per Barrel fuel oil
        = 5.2 Cents per Barrel naphtha
        = 4.5 Cents per Barrel LPG (r)
        = 4.1 Cents per Barrel LPG (P)
        = 3.8 Cents per Barrel LNG
ONE CENT per MMBtu
        = 0.42 Dollars per Tone crude oil
        = 0.40 Dollars per Tone fuel oil
        = 0.45 Dollars per Tone naphtha
        = 0.47 Dollars per Tone LPG
        = 0.52 Dollars per Tone LNG
ONE DOLLAR per BARREL
        = 17 Cents per MMBtu crude oil
        = 16 Cents per MMBtu fuel oil
        = 19 Cents per MMBtu naphtha
        = 22 Cents per MMBtu LPG (r)
        = 24 Cents per MMBtu LPG (p)
        = 26 Cents per MMBtu LNG
ONE DOLLAR per TONNE
        = 2.4 Cents per MMBtu crude oil
        = 2.5 Cents per MMBtu fuel oil
        = 2.2 Cents per MMBtu naphtha
        = 2.1 Cents per MMBtu LPG
        = 1.9 Cents per MMBtu LNG
    ONE CENT per US gallon LPG = 10 CENTS per MMBtu
 
Oil and Coal Equivalent
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 million tones Oil per Year
        per year = 1.1 mrd m3 gas (1.3 mrd Groningen)
                 = 1.5 million tones coal
                 = 815 000 tones LNG
                 = 890 000 tones LPG
                 = 0.04 Tcf gas (42 trillion Btu)
        per day  = 115 million ft3 gas
                 = 3 million m3 gas
                 = 30 500 barrels LNG
                 = 26 000 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 28 300 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 20 000 barrels oil
1 million tones Coal per Year
        per year = 0.7 mrd m3 gas (0.8 mrd Groningen)
                 = 640 000 tones oil
                 = 525 000 tones LNG
                 = 580 000 tones LPG
                 = 0.03 Tcf gas (27 trillion Btu)
        per day  = 75 million ft3 gas
                 = 2 million m3 gas
                 = 19 700 barrels LNG
                 = 16 800 barrels LPG (r)
                 = 18 200 barrels LPG (p)
                 = 12 900 barrels oil
10 000 barrels Oil per Day
        per year = 0.6 mrd m3 gas
                 = 500 000 tones oil
                 = 780 000 tones coal
                 = 0.02 Tcf gas (21 trillion Btu)
        per day  = 58 million ft3 gas
                 = 1.5 million m3 gas
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rich Gas = natural gas having a gross calorific value of 41,868 kJ/m3.
This term is used particularly for the natural gas from the North Sea and
from Algeria.
 
Degree-days = the number of degree-days of a day is calculated on the
Basis of a reference temperature set by experience at 16.5 C; 
it gives the difference between
that reference temperature and the daily mean temperature if the latter 
is the lower.
The number of degree-days of a year is the sum of the degree-days registered for 
each day of that year.
 
G-factor = invoicing factor representing the average monthly cost of
Natural gas at the Belgian border in francs per gigajoule
 
             1GJ        1Gcal      10-6 Btu   1toe       1kWh      1m3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1GJ          1          0.239      0.948      0.024      277.778   23.884
1Gcal        4.186      1          3.967      0.1        1,163     100
10-6 Btu     1.055      0.252      1          0.025      293.1     25.2
1toe         41.855     10         39.671     1          11,626    1,000
1kWh         3.600 10-3 0.860 10-3 3.421 10-3 0.083 10-3 1         86.011 10-3
1m3 rich gas 0.042      0.010      0.040      0.001      11.626    1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Gigjoule  giga       British    ton oil    kilowatt
             Calorie    thermal    equivalent - hour       Unit

PRICE AND PAYMENT

PRICE AND PAYMENTPER MT (Depend on the Quantity, please send your request to us and in 24 to 48 hours we will be able to send you a quotation).(1 MT=20 BAGS OF 50 KG)

OPTION 1:
Payment by Fully Funded Letter of Credit Irrevocable Transferable and Revolving from prime bank for the whole quantity of the contract period with a minimum of 12 months payable 100 % automatically each month upon reception and verification of the shipping document for each vessel.

This option requires from the seller a 2% Performance Bond. Price also is confirmed for the contract period.

OPTION 2:
Payment by conditional MT 103-23 shipment by shipment, covering only the cost of one shipment payable 100% Cash Wire transfer against receipt and verification of Shipping Documents for each vessel.

This option does not require from the seller a 2 % Performance Bond because this option normally is used for spot deal contract or contract of minimum 12 months but with payment for each shipment.

The price is not confirmed for the contract period of 12 months in case the buyer chooses to sign a long term contract with a payment per shipment. Each month, BCM will send the price for every new shipment because of the world market price.

In 1992, the Group that we work with in Brazil became the major shareholder of this textile plant facility in Brazil. Almost extinct at the time, the industry was quickly rebuilt and its infrastructure revamped. The world's most modern air jet loom machinery from the Tsudakoma Company was installed, as well as Jet Spine and Open End spinning machines.

Equipped with the most advanced technology, our textile factory recently received the ISO 9002 certification.

The plant is one of the country's main producers of bedsheet and tablecloth fabrics. It supplies mainly the market demand of São Paulo and Mercosur.

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